What is Ransomware? Definition, How it Works, Examples, Tips [Updated 2024]

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What is Ransomware? Definition, How it Works, Examples, Tips [Updated 2024]

Ransomware assaults have been a persistent problem for both businesses and people over the course of many years.  It has transformed into an intricate business strategy that defrauds millions of dollars annually.  Acquire knowledge about the functioning of ransomware and discover effective measures to safeguard your business against it.

What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that employs encryption to render computer files fully unavailable unless a ransom is paid.  This can manifest in various forms and functionalities, spreading to a large number of users worldwide.

Alternative forms of ransomware illicitly acquire your data with the intention of either auctioning it to the highest bidder on the hidden part of the internet or using it to extort further funds from you at a later time.   Ransomware poses a substantial threat to both individuals and corporations, leading to substantial losses in terms of data and finances.

Individuals, businesses, and government institutions have been the victims of ransomware attacks.   These cyberattacks can be initiated with just a few clicks on a phishing email containing either a malware file or a link to a suspicious website.  Once executed, these attacks can effectively deny you access to your machine, spread infection throughout your network, and potentially compromise your data or even cause more severe consequences.  Fortunately, there are strategies to proactively prevent and limit the impact of ransomware, avoiding the need to pay a substantial sum to restore your activities.

How Ransomware Works & Spreads?

The sole purpose of ransomware is to extort as much money as possible from victims by preventing them from accessing their data.  The predominant methods employed are data encryption and screen barring to restrict their access.  Although they operate in distinct ways, both yield the same result—the prevention of data access. Subsequently, a lock screen will appear accompanied by a notification that your data has fallen into their grasp and that you will be required to remit a ransom, usually in the form of a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin, in order to obtain the decryption key.

Worse yet, paying the ransom to obtain the decryption key does not ensure that the decryption will function or that the incident will not reoccur.  Some hackers, upon receiving the ransom payment, will abandon the victim entirely and refuse to return the decryption key.  Even with the purchase of the decryption key, there remains a possibility that hackers will retarget your system.

However, how does ransomware initially spread?

Phishing emails, which deceive recipients into downloading a compromised attachment or clicking on a malicious link, are the most common methods.  Additionally, drive-by downloads from infected websites and the exploitation of vulnerabilities in obsolete software can facilitate the spread of ransomware.  Even brute force attacks against remote desktop protocols (RDP) are employed by attackers to infiltrate networks and deploy ransomware.  Ransomware can rapidly traverse lateral systems and devices within a network until it has encrypted all valuable data.

Ransomware Attack Examples

An increasing number of ransomware assaults are occurring on a global scale, and their diverse manifestations make it challenging for businesses and individuals to safeguard themselves adequately.  Having a basic understanding of prevalent ransomware attacks can significantly reduce the likelihood of experiencing the detrimental consequences it can have on one’s finances, operations, and data.


In 2017, the WannaCry malware compromised more than two hundred thousand computers globally.  The malware typically targets obsolete operating systems and discovers and exploits vulnerabilities in Windows systems.  This could have been avoided if devices had been updated with the most recent patches.  One of the primary targets of WannaCry was the National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, incurring 92 million pounds in damages.


Petya is a catastrophic ransomware assault designed to compromise hard drives.  This assault encrypts your files and corrupts the master boot record (MDR) of the compromised system, rendering them unusable despite your compliance with the ransom demand.  Petya is transmitted via email and other platforms that permit the submission of (infected) documents and connections.


Locky is a ransomware program that infects computers in a particular manner.  Users are duped into opening or downloading an attachment to a Microsoft Word document that contains concealed macros.  Phishing and social engineering are standard methods employed by hackers to distribute ransomware as extensively as feasible.


Preying on high-value targets with ransom demands that can exceed one million dollars, Ryuk is a ransomware attack.  Because it disables the backup and recovery feature of your (Windows) operating system, once your data is encrypted, it becomes irretrievably lost.  This is the peril this ransomware poses, even if you pay the hefty ransom.  Therefore, in the absence of an external backup, your existing data will vanish.

How to know if you’re hit with a ransomware attack?

The following are typical indications that you may be the target of a ransomware attack:

Your files are encrypted.

An essential indicator of a ransomware attack is the inability to retrieve data, including but not limited to emails, videos, photographs, and documents.  Those in possession of the decryption key will be able to decipher the fragmented letters, numbers, and characters that will appear when you attempt to decrypt them.  Furthermore, the data contained within is nearly impossible to decipher and access without the decryption key.

You can’t access your apps.

Occasional inaccessibility to applications may occur, including but not limited to browsers and office applications.  In addition, each time you attempt to launch the application, a notification appears on your screen that your data is being held hostage and that you must comply with the hackers’ demands for payment, which is usually in the form of Bitcoin.

You can’t use your device.

A variety of ransomware assaults exist, but Locker is one that encrypts all of your files and denies access to your device.  This ransomware is particularly hazardous due to its capability of executing a complete system takeover, rendering any attempts to regain access futile until the ransom is remitted.

You see instructions for a ransom payment.

You will be provided with payment instructions by the cybercriminal who infiltrates your computer or network with ransomware.

Instructions may be provided in the form of an on-screen message or an email, detailing the required payment amount and the desired method of payment.  Due to the near-impossibility of tracing cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, cybercriminals will require payment in that manner.  Messages (typically.txt or.html) containing such threats that deletion of all encrypted files will occur if payment is not received within a specified time frame.

How to recover from a ransomware attack?

Complying with the ransom demand is invariably unwise.  Conversely, should you ever opt to pursue that path in the future, it will do you more damage than good.  In the event that ransom is paid as a last resort, there is no guarantee of data recovery or protection against future exploitation.

Planned mitigation is the most effective method for recovering from a ransomware attack in order to minimize the damage and restore operations as soon as possible.  Describing how it is actually possible:

Isolate & disconnect the infected system

In order to mitigate the dissemination of ransomware and minimize the detrimental impact on your network, it is imperative to identify the compromised machine and segregate it from the remainder of the network.  This stage involves the process of segregating various devices, terminating network connections, and securing shared disks.

Assess the damage

Ransomware has the ability to propagate rapidly.  In order to mitigate potential harm to your machines or networks, it is imperative to conduct a thorough investigation into the scope of the damage.  This entails examining the devices that may have been subjected to encryption or lockdown by the malware, as well as scrutinizing the logs.  This procedure will provide you with an understanding of which data has been compromised, and the extent of the damage, and will uncover the timing of the attack as well as any potential infection of other systems.

Evaluating the extent of the harm will also ascertain whether any confidential data was pilfered or disclosed during the ransomware assault.

Track the infection

Monitoring the infection will facilitate your comprehension of the magnitude of the harm inflicted by the attack and empower you to implement suitable actions.  Initially, ascertain the classification of the malware in order to monitor the spread of the infection.  You can acquire this information from a reliable antivirus software or a cybersecurity specialist.  After detecting the infection, you can use appropriate solutions and technologies to recover your activities without paying the ransom.

Identify the ransomware

Ransomware encompasses a multitude of distinct varieties, each with a distinguishing trait that sets it apart.  Identifying the specific form of ransomware you are encountering might assist in selecting the most suitable security measures, as certain types may be reversible without complying with the necessary payment.  However, some situations may necessitate more extreme actions, such as completely erasing the data on your hard drive and beginning anew.

To determine the specific kind of ransomware you are encountering, use the No More Ransom website and utilize their Crypto Sheriff tool by inputting the specific specifics of the ransom demand.  Strive for utmost precision when it comes to the alerts or warnings that appear on your screen.  No More Ransom will investigate the evidence to determine the exact variation being used and offer a way to decode the data.

Restore the system

To reinstate your systems to their previous state, it is crucial to reconstruct them using your backup, provided that you have one available.  The crucial factor lies in possessing up-to-date backups, regardless of the potential threat of cyber attacks.

To swiftly resume operations without complying with the ransom demands, it is imperative to recover from backups.  Nevertheless, it is crucial to bear in mind that all backup files must be current, devoid of any malicious software, and in a pristine state before being reintegrated into your system.

Upon regaining functionality, it is strongly advised that you promptly update your applications and systems to the most recent patches in order to thwart potential hackers from capitalizing on any recently identified vulnerabilities.

Professionally review the system

Seeking second viewpoints is consistently superior to relying on a single perspective.  By conducting thorough examinations of your security environment, cyber security specialists increase the likelihood of developing a robust solution that can effectively resist ransomware attacks and identify flaws before malicious actors discover them.

Implement stronger security options

Recovering from a ransomware attack is a challenging undertaking.  To ensure the prevention of future ransomware attacks, it is imperative for you, as a conscientious business owner, to establish a highly secure and impervious security policy.  This strategy should encompass not only your IT infrastructure but also your workers.

Ransomware Prevention Tips

Once hackers have access to your data, they have the ability to manipulate it in any way they like.  As a decision-maker, it is your duty to mitigate their influence on your organization and customers.

Implementing these ransomware prevention strategies can effectively mitigate potential damages and thwart attackers from capitalizing on your vulnerabilities.

Implement data backups

Ransomware operates by encrypting your data and preventing you from accessing it.  However, in the event of a ransomware assault, what if you possessed a recent cloud backup?  Subsequently, you will no longer need to be concerned about the possibility of losing access to your data.

By utilizing data backup, whether through cloud storage or physical hard drives, you can recover your data without having to make any ransom payments.  In the event of a ransomware attack, it is sufficient to erase the compromised device and recover the files from a reliable backup source.  By following this approach, you will never again be required to make ransom payments.  However, it is important to note that having backups does not provide protection against ransomware.  It merely mitigates the harm.

We suggest implementing a 3-2-1 backup strategy, which involves storing three backups in distinct and independent locations.  Further information regarding the 3-2-1 backup system can be acquired at this location.

Secure your networks

Public Wi-Fi networks present a lucrative opportunity for cyber assailants.  An insecure network enables unauthorized individuals to infiltrate linked devices, exploit communication channels, and pilfer user data.

It is not advisable to utilize Public Wi-Fi networks, such as those found at airports and cafes.   Instead, we strongly recommend that you exclusively utilize your workplace and home network, since they offer enhanced security and are not susceptible to the presence of unreliable devices.  If you are traveling, you can utilize the Personal Hotspot feature on your smartphone.

Protect your emails

Ransomware primarily propagates via email communications.

Which demographic utilizes emails most frequently?

The individuals who work with you.

We advise the implementation of anti-spam filters and endpoint security solutions to prevent the reception of suspicious emails with infected attachments in your inbox.  However, despite the presence of a cutting-edge email security system, there are still instances where certain emails can bypass the system undetected.  Therefore, it is imperative that your personnel possess the ability to identify and evade online fraudulent activities.

Install updates regularly

Software developers deliver updates to rectify existing problems.  Failure to address these vulnerabilities exposes you to potential harmful exploits.  Enabling automatic updates is highly recommended to ensure that your devices and applications are consistently updated with the most recent patches.

Maintain security awareness

Ransomware attacks entail the act of luring individuals into revealing personal information or downloading harmful documents.  In order to counteract these risks, it is imperative to consistently administer security awareness training to your staff, focusing on subjects such as phishing, evasion of suspicious links, and identification of scamming strategies.

Alternatively, you have the option to register your team for our monthly security awareness webinar. During this webinar, our Security Specialist will provide insights on phishing, online frauds, and social engineering assaults that have the potential to undermine the security mechanisms of your IT infrastructure.

Implementing this approach will foster a culture of alertness inside your organization, ensuring that all individuals are cognizant of the potential hazards and possess the necessary skills to address them proficiently.

Reasons to Not Pay the Ransom in a Ransomware Attack

Neither we nor law enforcement endorses the act of paying ransomware demands.   While you may believe that paying the ransom to criminals ensures your safety, it regrettably introduces other perils and uncertainties to your organization, including:

Reason #1: There’s No Guarantee You’ll Get the Data Back

Hackers are a cunning and deceitful group of individuals.   Despite making a substantial payment, there is no assurance that you will be able to fully restore your data or device to its previous state.  Numerous individuals and organizations disbursed ransoms but ultimately received no reciprocation.  Consequently, you are faced with a substantial financial loss and the arduous task of completely reconstructing your IT infrastructure, all while grappling with the legal and reputational repercussions.

Reason #2: When You Pay the Ransom, It Only Encourages the Criminals to Launch More Attacks

Assuming that you made the payment as an act of trust and received the decryption key for your data.   What is your level of confidence in not being targeted again?  While it is not obligatory for the same group to target you again, there is a possibility that they might do so after a certain period of time.  However, once criminal organizations become aware that you are a lucrative target, you are likely to become a prominent and vulnerable target for them.

Reason #3: Your Company Might Be Sanctioned When They Pay the Ransom

By complying with ransomware demands, you inadvertently bolster the confidence of cyber criminals and encourage them to persist in their illicit activities.  Supporting their conduct implies that you are financially backing their illicit endeavors.  Complying with their requests implies that you are providing financial support for their activities and promoting the perpetuation of their illicit behaviors.

Although there may be arguments in favor of paying the ransom to recover sensitive information or protect corporate operations, this action ultimately incentivizes criminals to persist in targeting susceptible entities.

Although there may be arguments in favor of paying the ransom to recover sensitive data or protect corporate operations, this action ultimately encourages criminals to persist in targeting susceptible entities.

Reason #4: You’ll Be Targeted Again

By acquiescing to the demands of cyber thieves, you are indicating your readiness to make payment and exposing yourself to the risk of being targeted by future assailants.  Providing payment for a ransom financially supports criminal enterprises and encourages them to persist in victimizing others (including yourself) through the use of ransomware.

In the battle against ransomware assaults, prevention is ultimately the crucial factor.  Implementing security measures such as backups and employee training can effectively mitigate the danger of falling prey to cyberattacks and eliminate the need to pay any ransom.

Reason #5: The Hacker May Simply Increase the Demand

The hacker can escalate the ransom if you cooperate with their initial demands.  By paying the ransom, you inadvertently communicate to the assailant that you are open to bargaining, potentially strengthening their resolve to request a higher sum of money.

Hackers are frequently driven by the need for monetary profit, and if they perceive the potential to obtain greater financial gains from you, they may seize this opportunity.  This can initiate a detrimental loop wherein you continuously incur escalating expenses, resulting in significant financial setbacks.

Furthermore, there is no assurance that paying the escalated ransom would result in the attacker delivering the decryption key or fulfilling the promised resolution.  Dependence on the benevolence of cybercriminals is a precarious notion, as there is no guarantee that they will fulfill their part of the agreement.

Reason #6: Your Cyber Insurance Rates Could Go Up

Several firms have implemented cyber insurance coverage to minimize the financial consequences of a cyberattack, including ransomware outbreaks.  Nevertheless, surrendering to the ransom demand can result in unfavorable repercussions for your cyber insurance premiums and extent of protection.

Insurance companies frequently perceive ransom payment as a kind of surrender to attackers, indicating inadequate cybersecurity efforts.  Consequently, they have the potential to raise your future insurance costs or refuse coverage entirely.

These circumstances can result in significant financial consequences for your firm, as increased insurance expenses can diminish the financial advantages of obtaining coverage initially.

Prior to making any decisions on ransom payment, it is crucial to seek advice from your cyber insurance provider.  They may offer insight into how certain actions may affect your coverage and premiums.   Insurance plans may, in certain instances, explicitly forbid the payment of ransoms as a requirement for coverage.


About Ransomware

1: Is it worth paying the ransom?

Law enforcement officials believe that paying a ransom is erroneous as it incentivizes scammers to persist in their operations and seek out further potential targets.

2: Is it better to pay ransomware attack?

Providing the ransom in a ransomware assault does not ensure that the attackers would furnish the decryption key.   Despite possessing the key, the majority of businesses are incapable of fully restoring all their data only through decryption.   According to research, a staggering 92% of organizations were unable to fully recover their data despite making the ransom payment.

3: What is cheaper paying ransom or refusing to pay ransom?

Providing a ransom does not signify the conclusion of the recuperation procedure; rather, it marks the initiation.   The path to recovery is arduous and extensive.   According to a study, firms that choose to pay the ransom end up paying twice as much for recovery compared to organizations that do not pay.

4: Is it ethical to pay a ransom?

Providing a ransom could be considered unethical since it might incentivize attackers to persist in their illicit actions and potentially inflict harm on further individuals.

Wrapping Up

In the bottom line, we would like to say that we have tried hard to deliver every piece of authentic information related to Ransomware, such as its definition, working strategy, examples, tips, and other relevant stuff.  If you have any doubts and wish to know more about the same then you may join our 1 Year Industry-Oriented Cyber Security Course by Craw Security, the leading cybersecurity training institute in Singapore.  All the learners will certainly be able to extract the quality training of cybersecurity training programs under the supervision of highly qualified training mentors.

To know more about upcoming batches and other details, give us a call at +65-93515400 and talk to our expert team of educational consultants.

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