Top 100 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions [Updated 2024]

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Top 100 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions [Updated 2024]

Many proactive students of Craw Security, the Best Cybersecurity Training Institute in Singapore, come to know the mainstream questions that are being asked by the interviewers during the face-to-face interactions while interviewing them.   A user can grab world-class ethical hacking jobs after successfully attaining the ethical hacking course from our state-of-the-art elevations in Singapore, dispersing every type of cybersecurity course.

Moreover, if you wish to join any mesmerizing course showcasing the fundamentals of cybersecurity, you can give us a call at +65-93515400 and enquire the same to our superbly skilled educational counselors with many years of experience.

1: What is hacking?

Illicit entry to, manipulation of, or abuse of computer systems, networks, or software are all covered by the umbrella term “hacking.”  This means employing technological know-how and expertise to get beyond a target system’s security protections for a variety of reasons, such as gaining illegal access, stealing data, causing damage, or interfering with operations.

2: Who is a hacker?

A person with advanced technical expertise and an in-depth understanding of computer networks, systems, and software is referred to as a hacker.  Because they are skilled at controlling and comprehending the complexities of technology, hackers can access computer systems without authorization, find vulnerabilities, and use them for a variety of objectives.

3: What are the advantages and disadvantages of hacking?

The key advantages and disadvantages of hacking are mentioned below:

Advantages of Hacking:

  • Security Improvement
  • Knowledge Enhancement
  • Vulnerability Awareness

Disadvantages of Hacking:

  • Illegal and Unethical Activities
  • Breach of Privacy and Security
  • Damage and Disruption

4: What is scanning and what are some examples of the types of scanning used?

In the framework of computer networks and cybersecurity, scanning is the process of constantly exploring and examining systems, networks, or applications in order to acquire data and spot any flaws or vulnerabilities.  In the field of cybersecurity, scanning is a crucial component of reconnaissance because it aids in determining a target’s level of security.

5: What is the difference between symmetric and asymmetric hacking?

The basic difference between symmetric and asymmetric hacking is mentioned below:

Symmetric Encryption:

Data is encrypted and decrypted using just one shared secret key in symmetric encryption.  Both the sender and the receiver execute the operations of encryption and decryption using the same key.  Although symmetric encryption techniques often involve a safe transfer of the secret key, they are quicker and more effective than asymmetric algorithms.

Asymmetric Encryption:

A couple of mathematically associated keys— a public key and a private key — are used in asymmetric encryption, commonly referred to as public-key encryption. Whilst the private key is kept hidden by the key owner, the public key can be shared openly with others.  Only the appropriate private key can be used to decrypt data that has been encrypted using the public key.  Without a common secret key, asymmetric encryption enables safe communication, but it is often slower and statistically more demanding than symmetric encryption.

6: What is cross site scripting and its different variations?

A web application vulnerability called Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) enables intruders to insert harmful code into reliable websites.  When an individual accesses a website that is compromised, the malicious script runs in their browser and has the ability to compromise their session, steal personal data, or carry out illegal acts on their behalf.

Moreover, there are three main variations of XSS attacks, such as the following:

  1. Stored XSS (Persistent XSS),
  2. Reflected XSS (Non-Persistent XSS),
  3. DOM-based XSS, etc.

7: What are the types of hackers?

Based on their goals and actions, hackers can be divided into various types. Here are a few typical categories of hackers:

  1. White Hat Hackers,
  2. Black Hat Hackers,
  3. Grey Hat Hackers,
  4. Hacktivists,
  5. Script Kiddies,
  6. State-Sponsored Hackers, etc.

8: What are different types of hacking?

The different types of hacking are as follows:

  • Network Hacking,
  • Website Hacking,
  • Password Hacking,
  • Social Engineering,
  • Wireless Hacking,
  • Malware Attacks,
  • Phishing Attacks,
  • SQL Injection, etc.

9: How can you avoid ARP poisoning?

Intruders employ the method of ARP poisoning, sometimes referred to as ARP spoofing, to intercept network communications and carry out different types of assaults.  Here are some steps you may perform to prevent ingesting ARP poison:

  • Use ARP Spoofing Detection Tools,
  • Implement Port Security,
  • Enable Static ARP Entries,
  • Use VLANs,
  • Enable ARP Spoofing Protection,
  • Implement Encryption,
  • Regularly Update and Patch Systems,
  • Educate Users, etc.

10: What is the difference between virus and worm?

Although both viruses and worms are examples of malicious software (malware), their traits and modes of transmission are different.  The following are the primary differences between worms and viruses:

  • Propagation,
  • Replication Method,
  • Payload and Behavior,
  • Detection and Removal, etc.

11: What are the steps performed by hackers to hack a system or a network?

It’s important to remember that hacking without the proper authorization is prohibited and unethical.  I can, however, give a broad overview of the actions malicious hackers might take throughout a hacking attempt.  Recognizing these steps could assist both organizations and people in safeguarding their networks and systems.  Here are the basic procedures undertaken by hackers in a hacking attempt:

  • Reconnaissance,
  • Scanning,
  • Gaining Access,
  • Maintaining Access,
  • Enumeration and Privilege Escalation,
  • Exploitation and Control,
  • Covering Tracks, etc.

12: What do you understand by footprinting in ethical hacking? What are the techniques utilized for foot printing?

In the field of ethical hacking, the method of learning about an intended system, network, or organization in order to comprehend its infrastructure, vulnerabilities, and potential entry points is known as “footprinting.”  To create a portrait of the target, publicly available data is gathered from a variety of sources.  Footprinting is an important stage in ethical hacking as it assists in preparing for future attacks and detecting possible security weaknesses.

Moreover, below mentioned are some prominent techniques utilized for footprinting:

  • Passive Information Gathering,
  • Active Information Gathering,
  • Whois Lookup,
  • DNS Enumeration,
  • Social Engineering,
  • Search Engine Footprinting,
  • Competitive Intelligence, etc.

13: What do you mean by DOS (Denial of administration) assault? Explain. What are the regular types of DOS assault?

A Denial of Service (DoS) assault is an unlawful effort to interfere with the normal operation of a computer system, network, or online service by overloading it with a flood of bogus requests or traffic.  The purpose of a DoS attack is to render the system being attacked or network inaccessible to its targeted clients, producing a denial of service.

In a DoS assault, the attacker often exploits flaws in the target’s architecture or takes over its assets, like as network bandwidth, computing power, or memory.  This ends up resulting in the system getting incapable of answering genuine user requests, resulting in either service disruptions or total unavailability.

In addition, the regular types of DoS Assaults are mentioned below:

  • TCP/IP-based Attacks,
  • ICMP Flood Attacks,
  • UDP Flood Attacks,
  • HTTP Flood Attacks,
  • DNS Amplification Attacks,
  • Application Layer Attacks,
  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks, etc.

14: What is a Sniffing Attack?

Sniffing attacks, also called network or packet sniffing, are a type of cyberattack in which the attacker intercepts and keeps track of network traffic in order to gather private data.  In order to intercept and examine data packets that are moving through a network and gain access to their contents, the assailant uses specialized software or tools.

The inherent design of networks where data packets are transmitted in plain text or with insufficient encryption makes sniffing attacks possible on both wired and wireless networks.  An attacker can extract a variety of sensitive info from these packets by intercepting and analyzing them, including login passwords, email content, website usage, financial transactions, and other types of personally identifiable information (PII).

15: What is keystroke logging?

Keystroke logging, commonly referred to as keylogging or keyboard capture, is a method for secretly seeing and recording keystrokes made on a computer keyboard.  All keyboard inputs, such as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, and other private data, are recorded by this type of surveillance.

Keyloggers can be used maliciously or for good, and they may function as hardware or software devices. Here are two different kinds of keyloggers:

  • Software Keyloggers, and
  • Hardware Keyloggers.

16: What is Pharming and Defacement?

Pharming and defacement are two distinct cyberattacks that aim at some targeted websites and may lead to unauthorized access to or content modification on the targeted websites.  An explanation of each follows:


Pharming is a type of cyberattack that modifies the user’s host file or the Domain Name System (DNS) to reroute website traffic to a phony website. In a pharming attack, the intruder seeks to misdirect individuals to a malevolent website that duplicates an authentic one, typically for the aim of acquiring private details such as usernames, passwords, or financial data.


Defacement refers to unlawful customization or altering of a website’s content, usually by hackers who want to imprint their signature or communicate a message. In a defacement attack, the assailant obtains unauthorized entry to a website’s server or content management system (CMS) and substitutes their own messages, graphics, or harmful code for the website’s original, legitimate content.

17: What do mean by Trojan and what are its types?

A Trojan, commonly referred to as a Trojan horse, is a form of malicious software that impersonates other programs or files in order to trick users and access their computers without their permission.  It gets its name from the myth of the Trojan Horse, in which the Greeks tricked Troy into letting them in with a wooden horse. Similar to a Trojan, which masks malicious intents by appearing pleasant or inoffensive.

Moreover, there are various types of trojan horses malware present in the current market, such as the following:

  • Remote Access Trojans (RATs),
  • Keyloggers,
  • Backdoors,
  • Banking Trojans,
  • Fake Antivirus Trojans,
  • DDoS Trojans,
  • Fileless Trojans, etc.

18: What is Cowpatty?

A wireless network security tool called Cowpatty is employed in penetration testing and network security evaluations.  It is made particularly for evaluating the reliability of wireless passwords and inspecting the safety of Wi-Fi networks.  Moreover, pre-shared key (PSK) passwords for Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) are the main target of Cowpatty’s offline dictionary attacks.

19: What is MIB?

Management Information Base is referred to as MIB. It is a database that network management systems use to save and arrange data about network components and their settings.  The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), a widely utilized standard for controlling and tracking network devices, is fundamentally made up of MIBs.

20: What is Network Enumeration?

The practice of acquiring data regarding a target network in order to gain a greater understanding of its architecture, services, and any security gaps is known as network enumeration.  It is frequently carried out as an element of an evaluation of safety or penetration testing and is a crucial stage in network reconnaissance.

Identification and mapping of network resources, including devices, systems, services, and users, are the main objectives of network enumeration in order to learn more about the design of the network and discover potential entry points for further investigation or exploitation.  An attacker or security expert can evaluate the network’s security posture and spot potential holes by finding and documenting its assets.

21: What is fingerprinting in ethical hacking?

Identifying an intended system, application, or network’s distinctive features, arrangements, or flaws is referred to as “fingerprinting” in ethical hacking.  The target’s operating system, open ports, software versions, and any additional details are all obtained via fingerprinting techniques.  Evaluating the subject’s security posture and possible weaknesses is made easier with this information.

22: What is XSS?

Cross-Site Scripting is also known as XSS. Attackers can insert dangerous programs into web pages that other users are viewing due to this particular online security flaw.  When a web application does not thoroughly check or clean user-supplied input and then includes it in the output that is delivered to other users’ browsers, this is known as cross-site scripting (XSS).

23: What is exploitation?

In the setting of cybersecurity and ethical hacking, the term “exploitation” refers to the practice of using software, system, or network flaws to gain unauthorized access, take over, or carry out evil deeds.  It entails making use of these flaws to accomplish a certain task, such as obtaining access to confidential information, jeopardizing the confidentiality of the system, or taking control of a system.

24: Distinguish between phishing and spoofing.

In general, spoofing involves faking or mimicking information to fool recipients or systems, whereas phishing is a tactic intended to lure people into disclosing sensitive information.  While spoofing focuses on changing the origin or reputation of communication or data transfer, phishing often focuses on social engineering.

25: What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is an example of malicious software (malware), which is used to encode files or lock computer systems so that their legitimate owners cannot access them.  The perpetrators of ransomware demand a ransom payment, typically in cryptocurrency, in return for decrypting the files or unlocking the infected system.

26: What is the difference between Vulnerability Scaling and Penetration Testing?

In a nutshell, penetration testing involves manual testing and active exploitation to evaluate security controls and spot potential holes, whereas vulnerability scanning is an automated technique that finds known vulnerabilities.  While vulnerability scanning offers a comprehensive perspective of weaknesses, penetration testing offers a more in-depth understanding of the significance and potency of security solutions.  To complete a thorough security evaluation, the two methods are combined and work well together.

27: What are different types of enumeration available in ethical hacking?

In a nutshell, penetration testing includes manual testing and active exploitation to evaluate security controls and spot potential holes, whereas vulnerability scanning is an automated technique that finds known vulnerabilities.  While vulnerability scanning offers a comprehensive perspective of weaknesses, penetration testing offers a more in-depth understanding of the significance and potency of security solutions.  To complete a thorough security evaluation, the two methods are combined and work well together.

28: What is SSL Session and SSL Connection?

A cryptographic protocol called SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) offers a safe internet connection.  The terms “SSL session” and “SSL connection” are connected when discussing SSL.

In addition, the secure route formed between a client and a server during an SSL session is referred to as an SSL connection, additionally referred to as an SSL/TLS connection. It stands for the two parties’ ongoing encrypted communication.

29: What is Cryptojacking?

Malicious crypto-mining, additionally referred to as cryptojacking, is a sort of cyberattack in which an attacker commandeers the computational power of unwary individuals or companies to mine cryptocurrency without their authorization or knowledge.  In order to solve the challenging mathematical puzzles necessary for cryptocurrency mining involves illicitly making use of computer processing power.

30: Why is Python utilized for hacking?

Python is a well-liked programming language in the hacker community for a number of reasons, such as the following:

  • Simplicity and Readability,
  • Extensive Library Support,
  • Cross-platform Compatibility,
  • Rapid Development,
  • Integration and Scripting,
  • Active Community and Resources,
  • Versatility, etc.

31: What can an ethical hacker do?

Below mentioned are some of the key activities an ethical hacker can perform:

  • Vulnerability Assessment,
  • Penetration Testing,
  • Network Security Testing,
  • Web Application Testing,
  • Social Engineering,
  • Wireless Network Testing,
  • Security Auditing and Compliance,
  • Incident Response, etc.

32: Define Exploit.

A unit of software, code, or technique known as an “exploit” uses a flaw or vulnerability in a computer system, network, or app to allow unauthorized access, carry out evil deeds, or run arbitrary code.  Attackers and hackers frequently employ exploits to undermine the integrity of an intended system for their own gain.

Various vulnerabilities, such as those caused by software defects, poor design, incorrect configuration, or human mistakes, might be the target of exploits. Once an exploit successfully takes advantage of a weakness, it gives the attacker access to the target system’s privileged resources, enables them to run arbitrary commands, steal sensitive information, or otherwise obstruct regular operation.

33: What is meant by Back Door?

In the setting of computer security, a backdoor is a covert or unauthorized technique for getting beyond standard authentication or security measures in order to access a computer system, network, or application without authorization.  It is a purposeful and covert entry point made by an attacker or an authorized user to keep access to a compromised system.

34: What is network sniffing?

Network traffic can be captured and analyzed using network sniffing tools, commonly referred to as packet sniffers or network analyzers.  Administrators, security experts, or even attackers can monitor and examine network activities using these tools, which capture and review data packets moving across a network.

35: What are the tool used in Network Sniffing?

Some commonly used network sniffing tools are as follows:

  • Wireshark,
  • Tcpdump,
  • Ettercap,
  • Cain and Abel,
  • Tshark,
  • NetworkMiner,
  • Colasoft Capsa,
  • WinPcap, etc.

36: How to protect yourself from getting hacked?

Implementing a number of proactive actions will improve your cybersecurity posture and protect you against hacking.  Following are some essential actions you can do to safeguard yourself against being hacked:

  • Use Strong and Unique Passwords,
  • Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA),
  • Keep Software Updated,
  • Use Antivirus and Antimalware Software,
  • Be Cautious of Suspicious Emails and Links,
  • Secure Your Wi-Fi Network,
  • Use Secure Browsing Practices,
  • Regularly Backup Your Data,
  • Educate Yourself About Cybersecurity,
  • Practice Social Media Privacy,
  • Enable Firewalls,
  • Be Wary of Public Computers and Networks, etc.

37: What is the difference between encryption and hashing?

The basic difference between encryption and hashing are as follows:

Encryption Hashing
By converting plaintext into ciphertext, encryption is used mainly to safeguard the privacy of data by rendering it unintelligible to unauthorized parties.  It concentrates on protecting data while it is being transmitted or stored. Data integrity and integrity verification while transmission or storage are the main goals of hashing.  Its main objective is to create a distinct digital “fingerprint” of the data.
Data is transformed from its initial state (plaintext) into a disorganized unintelligible form (ciphertext) by encryption using an algorithm and a key.  With the right decryption key, the ciphertext can be converted back to plaintext. Data of any length can be fed into hashing, which utilizes a hash function to turn it into a fixed-size output referred to as a hash value or hash digest.  Even a little modification to the input will end up resulting in a drastically different hash value because the generated hash is specific to the input data.
Reversible encryption allows the ciphertext to be converted back to the original plaintext with the aid of the decryption key. The goal is to make sure that only people with permission can safely access and comprehend the data. Since hashing is a one-way operation, it is computationally impractical to recover the initial information from a hash value.  Data integrity verification is the main goal of hashing; it is not intended to be reversed.
The utilization of encryption keys is necessary for encryption.  In symmetric encryption, an identical key is employed for both encryption and decryption, whereas in asymmetric encryption, encryption and decryption are performed using separate keys (public and private). Encryption keys are not used in hashing.  No matter what additional settings are used, the identical input will always result in the same hash value using the exact hash function.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), RSA, and Triple DES are examples of popular encryption methods. Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-256), Message Digest Algorithm (MD5), and Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) are three popular hashing algorithms.

38: What is CIA Triangle?

The Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) Triangle, often referred to as the CIA Triad, is an essential concept in information security that stands for these three concepts.  The CIA Triangle can be used as a guide when assessing and putting safety precautions in place to protect information assets.

39: List some components of SSL.

Here are some key components of SSL/TLS:

  • Certificate Authority (CA),
  • Digital Certificates,
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI),
  • Public and Private Keys,
  • Handshake Protocol,
  • Cipher Suites,
  • Session Keys,
  • Encryption Algorithms,
  • SSL/TLS Records, etc.

40: What is Adware?

The term “adware” refers to harmful software (also known as “malware”) that shows intrusive adverts on a user’s computer or mobile device.  By displaying targeted advertising or leading visitors to particular websites, adware is created with the intention of making money for its developers.  Adware can nevertheless be obtrusive and have a poor influence on the user experience, even though it may not be as destructive as other forms of malware like ransomware or trojans.

41: What is the difference between VA and PT?

In general terms, penetration testing includes proactively exploiting vulnerabilities to gauge the potential effect of successful attacks, while vulnerability assessment is a methodical procedure for finding and categorizing cybersecurity flaws and weaknesses.  A thorough security testing program must combine both VA and PT, with VA offering a wider perspective of flaws and PT verifying such weaknesses through simulated assaults.

42: What is a firewall?

In order to govern and supervise incoming and outgoing network traffic, a firewall is a network security equipment or piece of software that serves as an obstacle between an internal network and external networks (including variables such as the Internet).  Enforcing safety regulations and safeguarding the network from illegal access, harmful activity, and possible dangers are its main objectives.

43: What is ARP Poisoning?

A network attack technique employed to intercept, change, or reroute network communication within a local area network (LAN) is known as ARP poisoning, often referred to as ARP spoofing or ARP cache poisoning.  In addition, ARP, which stands for Address Resolution Protocol, is in charge of translating MAC addresses to IP addresses on a network.

Devices typically employ ARP in network communication to ascertain the MAC address related to a given IP address.  ARP poisoning exploits the fact that ARP is a trust-based protocol to alter or spoof ARP messages, thus jeopardizing system security.

44: What is Data Breach?

A data breach is a situation in which unauthorized people access private, protected, or confidential information without the owner or custodian’s permission.  This includes the illicit collection, disclosure, or removal of data that could be dangerous to people, businesses, or computer systems.

45: What is Operating System Fingerprinting?

A methodology employed to determine the operating system running on a distant device or host linked to a network is termed Operating System Fingerprinting, which is frequently referred to as OS fingerprinting or OS detection.  To identify the target system’s underlying operating system, numerous network characteristics, behavior, and responses must be analyzed.

46: Can you name some top hackers in the world today?

Kevin Mitnick, Adrian Lamo, Gary McKinnon, etc., are some of the top-notch hackers in the world today.

47: What is data leakage? How will you detect and prevent it?

Data leakage, sometimes referred to as data loss or data exfiltration, is the unintended or unlawful release of private or sensitive information to third parties from a company’s internal systems.  It may happen due to a variety of reasons, including human mistakes, insider threats, malware, hacking, or actual device theft.

Moreover, below-mentioned are some methods todetect and prevent data leakage:

  • Data Loss Prevention (DLP) Solutions,
  • Data Encryption,
  • Access Controls and User Permissions,
  • Employee Education and Awareness,
  • Network and Endpoint Security,
  • Monitoring and Logging,
  • Incident Response and Data Leakage Response Plan,
  • Physical Security Measures, etc.

48: What are the best programming languages for hacking?

Python, Java, PHP, HTML, C, C++, etc., are some of the mainstream programming languages for hacking.

49: What are the hacking stages? Explain each stage.

Hackers often go through a number of phases or procedures in the hacking process in order to acquire illegal entry to systems, networks, or data.  Following are the main stages that are frequently connected with hacking, while the precise stages may vary according to the technique or methodology employed:

  • Reconnaissance: An ethical hacker begins by gathering data about the intended system.  Hackers may monitor search engines, web services, social networking sites, DNS, email, networks, etc., using a variety of footprinting tools.
  • Scanning: The next step for ethical hackers is to collect more data about the network and its components, such as open ports, protocols, services, hosts, and live servers.
  • Gaining Access: The ethical hacker will attempt to access networks, hosts, devices, or apps during this crucial stage using any weaknesses found during scanning.
  • Maintaining Access: It’s not required for an attack surface to continue to exist once a hacker has gained access; instead, a fix may be installed by an end user.  Thus, if a hacker wants to keep using the device despite the hole in it, they could experience compelled to install spyware, trojans, or keyloggers.
  • Clearing Tracks: The last step is to get rid of all evidence of the hack and any applications (trojans, spyware) they might have put in.  It is a Proof Of Concept (POC) to see if hackers can mimic the same situations while avoiding detection.

50: What is Script Kiddie?

A person who participates in hacking or cyber-attacks without having highly developed technical abilities or a thorough comprehension of the underlying ideas is known as a Script Kiddie, also known as a Skiddie or Skid.  The vast majority of the time, script kids use pre-made hacking tools, scripts, or software developed by more experienced hackers.

51: What is DNS Cache Poisoning?

The Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure is the focus of a particular kind of cyberattack known as DNS cache poisoning, often referred to as DNS spoofing or DNS hijacking.  DNS is in charge of converting domain names that are human-readable (like into the IP addresses that computers use to interact with one another over the Internet.

A regional DNS server’s DNS cache is manipulated in a DNS cache poisoning attack so that a genuine domain name is linked to a malicious IP address.  This makes it possible for the attacker to covertly route users who are trying to browse a trustworthy website to a malicious website.

52: What are the tools used for ethical hacking?

Some of the mainstream tools utilized for ethical hacking are as follows:

  • Nmap,
  • Metasploit Framework,
  • Wireshark,
  • Burp Suite,
  • Nessus,
  • John the Ripper,
  • Aircrack-ng,
  • Hydra,
  • Sqlmap,
  • Nikto,
  • Kali Linux, etc.

53: What is DDoS Attack and how does it work?

A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is an illicit attempt to stop a computer network, service, or website from operating normally by saturating it with an influx of unauthorized traffic.  A DDoS assault aims to consume all of the target’s resources, including memory, processing power, and bandwidth, making the system or service unusable for legitimate users.

With the usage of the following methodology, a DDoS attack generally works:

  • Botnet Creation,
  • Command and Control (C&C),
  • Reconnaissance,
  • Attack Initiation,
    • Traffic-based Attacks,
    • Application Layer Attacks,
    • Protocol Attacks,
  • Overwhelming the Target,
  • Defense Evasion, etc.

54: What is MAC Flooding? And how to prevent it?

A local area network (LAN) switching architecture is the object of attack of MAC flooding, a sort of network assault.  The goal of the assault is to overburden the switch’s MAC address table, which will make it go into fail-open mode or stop responding.  A number of security problems, such as unauthorized access to network communications or a total network outage, may result from this.

Typical MAC flooding operation is as follows:

  • Switch Operation,
  • MAC Address Table Overflow,
  • Fail-Open Mode,

Moreover, below mentioned are some prominent ways to prevent MAC Flooding:

  • Port Security,
  • Enable MAC Address Aging,
  • Implement Port-Based Authentication,
  • Network Segmentation,
  • Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS),
  • Regularly Update Switch Firmware, etc.

55: What are types of DDoS Attack?

Attacks known as DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) can take many different shapes and aim after various components of a network or service.

In addition, below are some common types of DDoS attacks:

  • Volume-based Attacks,
    • UDP Flood,
    • ICMP Flood,
    • DNS Amplification,
  • Application Layer Attacks,
    • HTTP/S Flood,
    • SYN Flood,
    • Slowloris,
  • Protocol Attacks,
    • SYN/ACK Reflection,
    • Smurf Attack,
    • NTP Amplification,
  • Hybrid Attacks, etc.

56: Explain how you can stop your website getting hacked?

By following these methods, you can generally stop your website from getting hacked by the harmful eyes of hacking professionals:

  • Keep Software Updated,
  • Use Strong and Unique Passwords,
  • Employ Web Application Firewalls (WAF),
  • Secure Network Connections,
  • Regular Backups,
  • Implement the Least Privilege Principle,
  • Use Secure Hosting,
  • Regular Security Audits and Scans,
  • User Input Validation,
  • Educate Users, etc.

57: What is Pharming Attack and how to attack it?

Pharming is a form of cyberattack that, usually with the user’s permission or information, pushes site visitors to a malicious website.  A pharming assault aims to fool users into divulging private data such as login passwords, credit card information, or personal information.  Pharming attacks modify the DNS (Domain Name System) or the hosts’ file on the user’s device to redirect traffic, in contrast to phishing attacks, which rely on social engineering.

Here’s a basic explanation of how a pharming attack works:

DNS Pharming

A legal domain name is linked to a different IP address through the penetration or manipulation of the DNS infrastructure in a DNS pharming attack.  Requests from users who try to access the trustworthy website are diverted to the one that is under the control of the attacker.

Hosts File Pharming

A user’s device’s host file converts domain names to IP addresses.  In a host file pharming attack, the attacker changes the host’s file on the machine being attacked or a compromised DNS server to force users to the adversary’s malicious website whenever they try to access a genuine website.

58: What is Burp Suite? What are the tools does it contain?

A complete package of tools called Burp Suite is employed for verifying the security of web applications.  PortSwigger, a business that specializes in online application security, created it.  Security experts and penetration testers frequently use Burp Suite to find vulnerabilities, conduct security audits, and enhance the general safety of web applications.

Moreover, the mainstream tools that Burp Suite contains are as follows:

  • Proxy,
  • Scanner,
  • Intruder,
  • Repeater,
  • Sequencer,
  • Decoder,
  • Collaborator, etc.

59: What are different types of Penetration testing?

Some of the different types of penetration testing methodologies are as follows:

  • Network Penetration Testing,
  • Web Application Penetration Testing,
  • Mobile Application Penetration Testing,
  • Wireless Network Penetration Testing,
  • Social Engineering,
  • Physical Penetration Testing,
  • Red Team Testing,
  • Wireless Security Assessment,
  • IoT (Internet of Things) Penetration Testing,
  • Cloud Penetration Testing, etc.

60: What is SQL injection and its types?

A form of online application weakness known as SQL injection occurs when an intruder inserts malicious SQL code into a web app’s database query, changing how it behaves and potentially allowing them to access or manipulate the database without authorization.  When input from users is not adequately verified, SQL injection attacks take place, which provide a perpetrator with the ability to run any SQL command.

Here are some common types:

  • Classic SQL Injection,
  • Blind SQL Injection,
  • Time-Based Blind SQL Injection,
  • Error-Based SQL Injection,
  • Union-Based SQL Injection,
  • Out-of-Band SQL Injection, etc.

61: What are the types of password cracking techniques?

Some common types of password cracking techniques are mentioned below:

  • Brute Force Attack,
  • Dictionary Attack,
  • Hybrid Attack,
  • Rainbow Table Attack,
  • Rule-Based Attack,
  • Phishing, etc.

62: What’s a denial of service (DOS) attack and what are the common forms?

An intentional attempt to interfere with or disable a computer system, network, or service so that its intended users are unable to access it is known as a denial-of-service (DoS) attack.  In order to make the system being attacked slow, unresponsive, or wholly inaccessible for legitimate users, a DoS attack must overpower the target’s internal resources, including bandwidth, processing power, or memory.

There are several common forms of DoS attacks, such as the following:

  • Flood Attacks,
    • UDP Flood,
    • ICMP Flood,
    • SYN Flood,
  • Application Layer Attacks,
    • HTTP Flood,
    • Slowloris,
    • DNS Amplification,
  • Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks,
    • Botnet-based DDoS,
    • DNS Reflection/ Amplification,

63: What is a social engineering attack?

A social engineering attack is a strategy employed by adversaries to persuade people or organizations to reveal confidential data, carry out tasks, or make choices they otherwise would not.  Social engineering assaults use the psychology of humans and trust to gain illegal access to systems or private data, in contrast to typical hacking methods that concentrate on exposing technical flaws.

Attacks using social engineering can take many different shapes and frequently involve psychological trickery, mimicry, or deception.  These are some examples of typical social engineering assaults:

64: What is meant by spoofing attack?

A social engineering attack is a strategy used by attackers to persuade individuals or groups to reveal private data, carry out tasks, or make decisions they otherwise would not.  Social engineering assaults use human psychology and trust to obtain illegal entry to systems or sensitive data, in contrast to typical hacking methods that concentrate on exposing technical flaws.

65: What are different types of Social Engineering Attacks?

Some of the mainstream Social Engineering Attacks are as follows:

  • Phishing,
  • Spear Phishing,
  • Whaling,
  • Vishing,
  • Smishing,
  • Pretexting,
  • Baiting,
  • Watering Hole Attack,
  • Impersonation,
  • Tailgating, etc.

66: What are the different types of spoofing?

Some of the common types of spoofing examples are as follows:

  • IP Spoofing,
  • Email Spoofing,
  • Caller ID Spoofing,
  • DNS Spoofing,
  • ARP Spoofing,
  • Website Spoofing,
  • SMS Spoofing, etc.

67: What is a rogue DHCP server?

An illegal or malevolent DHCP server running on a network is referred to as a rogue DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server.  Automatically allocating Internet Protocol (IP) addresses along with other network setup variables to devices on a network is the responsibility of the DHCP protocol.  A malicious DHCP server might jeopardize network security and cause operational disruptions.

68: What is active and passive reconnaissance?

Approaches for active and passive reconnaissance both offer useful data for security evaluations, penetration testing, or vulnerability research.  Security experts can develop an in-depth knowledge of the target system or network and spot any possible weaknesses by integrating the findings from the two ways.

Active Reconnaissance:

Active reconnaissance entails engaging in direct communication with the intended network or system in order to obtain information.  It frequently consists of actions that proactively test the intended infrastructure or generate network traffic.

Passive Reconnaissance:

Obtaining data about the target system or network while avoiding direct interaction with it is known as passive reconnaissance.  It makes use of open-source intelligence (OSINT), data that is readily accessible to the public, and network traffic analysis.

69: Differentiate Between a MAC and an IP Address?

In computer networks, both MAC addresses and IP addresses are used to identify devices, although they have different functions and operate at various network stack layers.

In general, IP addresses are logical addresses that are employed for network identification and communication, such as internet connectivity, whereas MAC addresses are actual addresses utilized for local network communication.  IP addresses can either be assigned automatically or statically configured, but MAC addresses are specific to each device and cannot be easily modified.

70: What is SSL and why is it not enough when it comes to encryption?

A protocol that uses encryption called SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) offers secure interaction over a network, usually the Internet.  It is frequently used to create secure connections between online browsers and servers, preserving the privacy, integrity, and reliability of any data sent between them.

However, SSL alone is not enough when it comes to encryption for several reasons:

  • Limited Scope,
  • Endpoint Vulnerabilities,
  • Data Storage,
  • Key Management,
  • Vulnerabilities and Weaknesses, etc.

71: What is a Bot?

The term “bot,” which stands for “robot” or “software robot,” designates a computer program or script that executes automated operations over the internet.  Bots are computer programs created to perform specified tasks autonomously or somewhat autonomously.  They frequently communicate with other software programs, websites, and online services.  According to their design and goal, bots can be used for a variety of reasons, both good and bad.

72: What is meant by Botnet?

A network that consists of computers or other devices that have been infested with malware and are being managed by an outsider or a command-and-control (C&C) server is known as a botnet.  The hacked computers, often known as “bot” or “zombie” computers, have been infected without the individual’s awareness or agreement.

73: Define Brute force attack.

A brute force assault is a technique for gaining illicit entry into a computer system or an account that involves repeatedly trying all password or encryption key combinations until the right one is discovered.  The attacker’s computing power and the presumption that the right password or key is among the options are used in this trial-and-error method.

74: Define Buffer Overflow attack.

A security flaw known as a buffer overflow occurs when a system or program is overloaded with additional information than it is capable of handling, causing the extra data to overflow into nearby memory locations.  Data corruption, the deployment of malicious code, or unwanted access and management of the impacted system can result from this.  Software programs that receive user input and alter data stored within buffers, which include arrays, strings, or memory caches, are the primary targets of buffer overflow attacks.

75: Who is a Cracker?

A cracker is a person who participates in destructive operations with the goal of getting around safety precautions, exploiting flaws, and gaining illegal access to computer networks, systems, or digital resources.  In addition, crackers are also known as black hat hackers or nasty hackers.

In crisp words, black hat hackers are also known as ‘crackers.’

76: What is a Backdoor Trojan?

Backdoor Trojans, commonly referred to as backdoors or remote access Trojans (RATs), is a category of malicious software that allows illegal access to and management of a hacked computer system.  It is intended to get around standard authentication procedures and establish a covert entry point, giving remote attackers unknowing access to the compromised machine and the ability to take complete or partial authority over it.

77: What is meant by Fake AV Trojan?

The term “fake AV Trojan” or “fake antivirus Trojan” refers to a class of malicious programs that pose to be genuine antivirus program but is actually created to fool users into carrying out destructive deeds or paying for fictitious security services.  It is a type of scareware that uses people’s concerns about malware infestations to trick them into downloading and installing the Trojan or buying fake antivirus software.

78: What is a Game-thief Trojan?

An unlawful gamer trojan is a sort of malicious program that addresses just video games, often referred to as a game trojan or a game-thief trojan.  It is intended to compromise or steal user account information, virtual assets, in-game currency, or other priceless gaming-related stuff.  Trojans that steal games are often spread via a variety of channels, including malicious websites, bogus game patches, and corrupted game downloads.

79: Define Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Trojans.

The term “Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Trojans” does not refer to a particular kind of malware.  Trojans and DDoS attacks are two different ideas in the field of cybersecurity.

In general terms, DDoS is a special type of attack approach, while Trojan is a type of malware that is used to infiltrate the target system with a specialized type of Trojan malware.

80: What is a Remote Access Trojan?

A form of malicious software called a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) allows unapproved individuals, frequently cybercriminals, to acquire remote entry to and management of an intended computer system.  Because RATs are built to work covertly, attackers can carry out a variety of harmful actions on the hacked system without knowing about them.

81: What is an Infostealer Trojan?

A malicious piece of software called an infostealer Trojan, also called an information stealer Trojan, is made to extract confidential data from affected systems.  It is designed primarily to collect and retrieve useful data from infected systems, like login credentials, banking details, private information, or other sensitive data.

82: What is a Ransom Trojan?

An example of malware that encodes files on the target’s system or network and makes them unavailable until a ransom amount is paid is a Ransom Trojan, sometimes referred to as ransomware.  It refers to a type of virus that seeks to steal funds from people or businesses by enslaving their priceless data.

83: What is a Mail finder Trojan?

The Mail finder Trojan tries to harvest email addresses from an intended device’s storage.

84: What is a Downloader Trojan?

A trojan-downloader is a specific kind of trojan that implants itself on a target system and waits for an Internet connection to turn accessible before connecting to an external server or website and downloading more applications, typically malware, onto the compromised machine.

85: What is PGP?

An encryption application called Pretty Good Privacy offers authentication and cryptographic security for data transfer.  PGP is employed to sign, encrypt, and decrypt files, directories, and entire disk partitions, as well as to strengthen the security of e-mail exchanges.

86: What is port 20, 21 used for?

File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a prominent network protocol used for file transfers between the client and the server over a TCP/IP network, frequently uses ports 20 and 21.

In FTP’s active mode, data transfer takes place on port 20.  In active mode, the FTP server initiates an information connection to the client’s computer on Port 20 to transfer the files that were requested after forming a control connection on Port 21.  Port 20 is reserved for the actual file data transfer.

The control connection in FTP uses port 21 by default.  The control connection enables interaction and the transmission of orders between the FTP client and server.  It manages operations like file transfer command issuance, file system navigation, and authentication.

87: What is STRIDE?

To discover and classify potential risks or security holes in software systems, the threat modeling framework STRIDE is employed in the area of cybersecurity.  It offers a methodical way to evaluate and address security issues all the way through the software development lifecycle.

88: Explain what is CSRF (Cross Site Request Forgery) and how you can prevent it?

A sort of web vulnerability known as Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) happens when an intruder deceives a victim into unintentionally completing activities on a website or internet application without their permission or knowledge.  By taking benefit of a user’s browser’s capacity to seamlessly incorporate cookies and session data with requests to a website, CSRF attacks are able to take full advantage of the confidence a website has in that browser.

Moreover, the below-mentioned are some proactive methods by which CSRF can be prevented:

  • Use CSRF Tokens,
  • SameSite Cookies,
  • Origin Header Validation,
  • CSRF Protection Frameworks,
  • Cookie Prefixing,
  • User Education, etc

89: How is Email Hacking?

Email hacking, sometimes referred to as email phishing or email account breach, is the practice of intercepting and altering email correspondence or gaining illicit entry to a person’s email account.

90: What is Password Hacking?

The act of gaining illicit entry to an individual’s password-protected accounts or systems is known as password hacking.  It encompasses a variety of strategies and tactics used by intruders to figure out or crack passwords, giving them access to networks, accounts, or sensitive data without authorization.

91: What is Online Banking Hacking?

Hacking into online banking systems or accounts without authorization with the goal of stealing money or sensitive data or carrying out fraudulent acts is referred to as online banking hacking.  Hackers may target flaws in online banking facilities, user devices, or user actions in their attacks on online banking.

92: What is Computer Hacking?

Illegal entry to, manipulation of, or misuse of computer systems, networks, or software is referred to as computer hacking.  It entails utilizing illicit means to obtain unauthorized entry to information systems or data with the purpose of disrupting operations or compromising security, frequently for one’s own gain.  Hackers, usually referred to as malicious actors or attackers, use a variety of strategies and tactics to breach computer networks and systems.

93: What is Script Kiddies?

Script Kiddies, also known as skiddies, are people who have little expertise in computer programming or hacking and use pre-made tools, scripts, or flaws to commit destructive acts.  They frequently lack in-depth technological knowledge and rely on readily available hacking tools as well as resources to conduct illicit operations or launch assaults.

94: What is Black Hat Hacker?

The type of hackers who work for malicious purposes to obtain the data information of various systems and equipment to illegally store them for wrong deads are highly referred to as black hat hackers.

95: What is reconnaissance?

The technique of obtaining intelligence regarding an intended system, network, organization, or person is known as reconnaissance or research for short.  It is a crucial phase in the hacking or security evaluation procedure since it enables people or organizations to acquire data that can be utilized to find weaknesses, plan attacks, or strengthen defenses.

96: What is a Cyber extortionist?

A person or group who employs digital means to demand payment or valuable stuff from people, businesses, or even governments is known as a cyberextortionist.  They use cyberattacks, threats, or the potential disclosure of sensitive data to pressure their victims into complying with the demands they make.

97: What is the importance of Ethical Hacking?

Penetration testing and white-hat hacking, commonly referred to as ethical hacking, are essential for guaranteeing the security and resiliency of computer systems, networks, and digital infrastructure.  In addition, below mentioned are some main arguments in favor of ethical hacking:

  • Identifying Vulnerabilities,
  • Assessing Security Posture,
  • Preventing Data Breaches,
  • Protecting Customer Trust,
  • Compliance and Regulatory Requirements,
  • Proactive Risk Management,
  • Continuous Improvement, etc.

98: What is TCP IP Fingerprint?

TCP/IP fingerprinting, commonly referred to as OS fingerprinting or stack fingerprinting, is a method for determining the operating system (OS) running on a distant host based on its network activity and replies to particular network probes.  Making an educated prediction about the target operating system entails examining several traits and peculiarities of the TCP/IP protocol stack design in different operating systems.

99: Name some gears used by moral hackers?

Below mentioned are some common gears and tools used by ethical hackers or moral hackers:

  • Computers,
  • Operating Systems,
  • Network Tools,
  • Penetration Testing Frameworks,
  • Password Cracking Tools,
  • Vulnerability Scanners,
  • Exploitation Tools,
  • Wireless Hacking Tools,
  • Forensic Tools,
  • Virtualization Software,
  • Documentation and Reporting Tools, etc.

100: What is LDAP?

The acronym LDAP calls for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.  For organizing and accessing directories via a network, it is a norm, open protocol.  An organized hierarchy called a directory is used to keep track of people, groups, devices, and other network resources.

Directory features are databases designed for reading, looking, and recovering data, and LDAP offers a framework for communicating with them.  Data like user accounts, contact details, organizational units, and access control regulations tend to be read-only and organized in directory services.

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